Japan and its neighboring countries are known to be the most tsunamigenic region in the world and Japan has been attacked by destructive tsunamis since 684. Consequently, the investigation of time and space characteristics of large tsunamigenic earthquakes has been executed based on the available historical data. In addition to these major tsunamis generated from large earthquakes, close attention has been also given to the minor tsunamis to improve our knowledge of smaller earthquekes that generated them. Is order to compile all the data of earthquakes and tsunamis occurring in and near Japan, a through review of the literature was undertaken. All tsunamis which occurred in and near Japan or reported in the literature are given in this catalog which covers the period from 684 (Tenmu 13) to 1983 (Showa 58). The tsunami catalog consists of three parts : Part one is the catalog of tsunamis caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides which occurred or reported in and near Japan. Part two is the catalog of tsunamis which occurred in China and Korea. Part three is the catlog of tsunamis which occurred in the Pacific Ocean and struck Japan and its vicinity.
Key to Tsunami catalog
The contents of the tsunami catalog are as follows : Tsunami event number ; data in the Christian and Japanese Calendar (time in Japanese standard time), C. C. and J. C. ; Location of tsunami source or epicentral region together with longitude (λ), latitude (φ) and depth of hypocenter ; magnitude of earthquake, M ; grade magnitude of tsunami on the Imamura-Iida scale, m ; validity rating of tsunami ; description of earthquake and tsunami ; tsunami height above ordinary tides or double amplitude of maximum wave of tide gauge, indicating a mark *. The probabibity ratings are used for the validity of a tsunami as follows : rating 4 : definite tsunami (probability approximately 1.0), rating 3 : probable tsunami (probability approximately 0.75), rating 2 : questionable tsunami (probability approximately 0.50), rating 1 : very doubtful tsunami (probability approximately 0.25), rating 0 : no tsunami (probability approximately 0.00). Tsunami magnitude, m on the Imamura-Iida scale is used as follows : m tsunami height tsunami energy damage sustained −1 ≦50cm 0.06x10^22erg negligible damage 0 1m 0.25 slight damage 1 2m 1 damage to houses and boats 2 4〜6m 4 loss of human life and houses 3 10m 16 heavy damage along coast for about 400km 4 ≧30m 64 heavy damage along coast for more than 500km This classification is designated as a half grade of the magnitude for some of tsunamis, the heights of which would be well estimated. The number of tsunamis according to their magnitude and region of occurrence is shown in Table 1 which includes the tsunami designated as the validity rating 4 and 3. The number of tsunamis according to their magnitude and whether generated by volcanic eruption or landslide is shown in Table 2. The event number for modified earthquake parameters is marked by an asterisk *. The information on the old earthquakes has been corrected based on literature review, or by investigation, or by judgment. The geographic distribution of tsunamigenic earthquakes occurred in and near Japan is shown in Fig. 1, the epicenters have been plotted with circles whose size is related to earthquake magnitude. The distribution of tsunamis affecting the Japan coast is shown in Fig. 2, the epicenter notation of which is classified according to the earthquake magnitude.
1. Tsunamis occurred or reported in and near Japan
(H):Hatori (K):Kawasumi (R):Rikanenpyo
2. Tsunamis occurred in China and Korea
3. Tsunamis occurred in the Pacific Ocean and affected Japan and its vicinity
Table1. Number of tsunamis according to magnitude and region of occurrence. Normal figure indicates tsunamis from 684 to 1867 (before Meiji Era). Gothic type figure indicates tsunamis from 1868 (Meiji 1) to 1983. (1)W. off Hokkaido (2)SE. off Hokkaido (3)Sanriku (4)Off Miyagi Pref. (5)Off Fukushima Pref. (6)Off Aomori Pref. (7)Off Akita Pref. (8)Off Yamagata Pref. (9)Off Ibaraki Pref. (10)Off Chiba Pref. (11)Tokyo Bay and Sagami Bay (12)Off Hachijo Is. (13)Suruga Bay,Enshunada, and Kumanonada (14)Off Kii Penin. (15)Off Shikoku (16)Osaka Bay and Seto Inlet (17)Off Tango, Tottori and Shimane Pref. (18)Off Fukui (19)Off Kanazawa and Toyama Pref. (20)Off Niigata Pref. (21)Beppu and off Ooita Pref. (22)Hiuganada (23)Kagoshima Bay and off Kago-shima Pref. (24)Ｗ. off Kyushu (25)Off Okinawa Pref. (26)Inland (27)Foreign country Table2. Number of tsunamis according to magnitude, volcanic eruption, and landslide. Fig. 1. Geographic distribution of epicenters of tsunamigenic earthquakes occurred in and near Japan. The epicenters are plotted with circles whose size is related to earthquake magnitude. Fig. 2. Geographic distribution of tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Pacific Ocean. The epicenters are plotted with circles whose size is related to earthquake magnitude. Gothic type year shows tsunami which caused some damage in Japan and its vicinity.
Aida, I., 1975, Numerical experiments of the tsunamis associated with the collapse of Mt. Mayuyama in 1792, Zisin, 2nd Ser., 28, pp. 449-460. (J). Association for the Fire Defence in Chiba Prefecture (ed.), 1968, Historical description on fire defence in Chiba Prefecture, pp. 240-250. (J). Association for the Development of Earthquake Prediction, Japan, 1984, Study on the precursor phenomena of the Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake, historical earthquakes and tsunamis, pp. 99-111. (J). Awa County, Education Council (ed.), 1925, The historical description of Awa County, Chiba Prefecture, p. 1208 (J). Choshi City, Editorial Committee of Historical Data, 1956, Historical data of Choshi City, p. 1151. (J). Earthquake Reserch Institute, Univ. Tokyo (ed.), 1981-1983, Recently collected historical data of Japanese earthquakes. No. 1〜No. 3. (J). Funakoshi, T., 1937, Okuminami-shoshi (historical description of Hachinohe City), p. 47. (J). Gifu Meteorological Observatory, 1910, Report of the Kono Earthquake, 1909, p. 82. (J). Gondo, S., 1932, Japan earthquake disaster and famine considerations, Bungeishunjyu-sha, Tokyo, pp. 1-394. (J). Greve, F., 1964, Historia de la sismologia de Chile, Instituto de Geoficica y Sismologia, Univ. Chile. Hatori, H., 1965, On the Aleutian tsunami of February 4, 1965 as observed along the coast of Japan, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 43, pp. 773-782. Hatori, T., 1970, An Investigation of the Tsunami generated by the East Hokkaido Earthquake of August, 1969, Bull, Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 48, pp. 399-412. (J). Hatori, T., 1971, Tsunami sources in Hokkaido and Southern Kuril Regions, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 49, pp. 63-75. (J). Hatori, T., 1971, The magnitude of tsunamis generated in Hiuganada during the years, 1926-1970, Zisin, 2nd Ser. 24, pp. 95-106. (J). Hatori, T., 1972, An investigation of the tsunami of Sept. 6, 1971 generated off southwestern Sakhalin, Zisin, 2nd Ser., 25, pp. 218-224. (J). Hatori, T., 1975, Tsunami magnitude and wave source regions of historical Sanriku tsunamis in northeast Japan, Bull. Earthq. Res, Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 50, pp. 397-414. (J). Hatori, T., 1976, Monuments of the 1703 Genroku tsunami along the south Boso Peninsula : Wave height of the 1703 tsunami and its comparison with the 1923 Kanto tsunami, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 51, pp. 63-81. (J). Hatori, T., 1976, Wave Source of the Hawaii Tsunami in 1975 and the tsunami behavior in Japan, Zisin, 2nd Ser., 29, pp. 355-363. (J). Hatori, T. and M. Katayama, 1977, Tsunami behavior and source areas of historical tsunamis in the Japan Sea, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 52, pp. 49-70. (J). Hatori, T., 1978, The tsunami generated off Miyagi Prefecture in 1978 and tsunami activity in the region, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 53, pp. 1177-1189. (J). Hatori, H., 1979, Tsunami activity in the Hokkaido and Kurile regions (1893—1978), Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 54, pp. 543-557. (J). Hatori, H., 1981, Tsunami sources in the Sanriku Region in 1979 and 1981, Northeastern Japan - Scismic gap off Miyagi, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 56, pp. 629-640. (J). Hatori, H., 1982, Wave magnitude of the Kurile-Kamchatka tsunamis - Tsunami effect in Japan, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 57, pp. 687-699. Hatori, H., 1983, Tsunami magnitude and source area of the Nihonkai-Chubu (the Japan Sea) Earthquake in 1983, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 58, pp. 723-734. (J). Hatori. H., 1984, Tsunami associated with an aftershock of the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake, and source mechanism of the main tsunami, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 59, pp. 105-113. (J). Hatori, T., 1984, Source area of the East Hokkaido Tsunami generated in April, 1843, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 59, pp. 423-431. (J). Hsu, Ming-Tung, 1981, Tsunamis and their damage, Meteorological Bulletin, Taiwan, 27, No. 1 pp. 1-15. (C). Iida, K., 1956, Earthquakes accompanied by tsunamis occurring under the sea off the Island of Japan, J. Earth Sci., Nagoya Univ., 4, pp. 1-43. Iida, K., 1958, Magnitude and energy of earthquakes accompanied by tsunami, and tsunami energy, J. Earth Sci., Nagoya Univ., 6, pp. 101-112. Iida, K., D. C. Cox and G. Pararas-Carayannis, 1967, Preliminary catalogue of tsunamis occurring in the Pacific Ocean, Data Report No. 5 HIG-67-10, Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics, Univ. Hawaii, August, pp. 1 -270. Iida, K., 1976, On the earthquake damage, crustal deformation and occurrence of the Tonankai Earthquake, 1944, Bull. Aichi Inst. Tech., 11, pp. 85-94. (J). Iida, K., 1978, Distribution of earthquake intensity and disaster of the Mikawa Earthquake of January 13, 1945. Report of Earthq. Diaster Prev. Comm. of Aichi Pref., Japan, pp. 1-96. (J). Iida, K., 1979, Investigation of historical earthquakes (2) ; Earthquake and tsunami damage of 16 June 1026, Bull. Aichi Inst. Tech., 14B, pp. 199-206. (J). Iida, K., 1980, Earthquake and tsunami damage by the Meio Earthquake of 1498 and the Tensho Earthquake of 1586, J. Analytical Res. of Data on Natural Disaster, 7, pp. 170-182. (J). Iida, K., 1981. Destructive historical tsunamis in Aichi Prefecture of Japan, Report of Earthq. Disaster Prevention Comm of Aichi Pref. Japan, pp. 1-119. (J). Iida, K., 1981, Investigation of historical earthquakes (4), Earthquake and tsunami damage by the Keicho Earthquake of February 3, 1605, Bull. Aichi Inst. Tech., 16B, pp. 159-164. (J). Iida, K., 1982, Investigation of historical earthquakes (5), Earthquake and tsunami damage by the Hoei Earthquake of October 28, 1707, Bull. Aichi Inst. Tech., 17B, pp. 143-157. (J). Imamura, A., 1949, List of Tsunamis in Japan, Zisin, 2nd Ser., 2, pp. 23-28. (J). Imamura, A., 1910, Report on the Anegawa Earthquake of 1909. Reports of the Imp. Earthq. Invest. Committee, 70, pp. 1-63. (J). Imamura, A., 1924, On the 1923 Earthquakes, History of the great earthquake disaster in Japan, Part III, Lectures, pp. 572-573 (J). Imamura, A. and M. Moriya, 1939, Marigraphic observations of tsunamis in Japan during the period from 1894 to 1924, Japanese J. Astronomy and Geophysics, 17, No. 1, pp. 119-140. Japan Meteorological Agency, 1968, Kansoku-Shishin (Analytical guide book for seismic observation), pp. 177-217. (J). Kajiura, K., I. Aida and T. Hatori, 1968, An investigation of the tsunami which accompanied the Hiuganada Earthquake of April, 1968, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 46, pp. 1149-1168. (J). Kameyama Meteorological observatory (ed), 1970, Historical data on disasters in Mie Prefecture, Mie Pref. pp. 121-152. (J). Katayama, N., 1974, Old records of natural phenomena concerning the Shimabara Catastrophe, The Science Reports of the Shimabara Volcano Observatory, Faculty of Science, Kyushu Univ., 9, pp. 1-45. (J). Kawasumi, H., 1968 Historical earthquakes in the disturbed area and vicinity, General Report on the Niigata Earthquake of 1964, Tokyo Electrical Engineering College Press, pp. 33-46. Kawasumi, H. (ed.), 1973, Earthquake disasters, Table of major destructive earthquakes in and near Japan, Kyoritsu Pub. Co., pp. 55-82. (J). Keimatsu, M., 1963, Tsunami in China, Zisin, 2 pp. 149-160. (J). Kitamine, K. (ed.), 1855, Calendar view of great earthquakes in Japan. (J). Kotoda, K. (ed.), 1923, Brief Chronological table of Japanese earthquake disasters (Nihon Shinsai-Shi), Research for Social History, Special Issue 10, pp. 209-223. (J). Makino, K., 1968, The 1771 great tsunami of Yaeyama, Ryukyu Is., pp. 1-447. (J). Matsuo, H., 1934, Estimation of energy of tsunami and protection of coasts, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Tokyo Imperial Univ., Supplementary volume 1, Papers and Reports on the Tsunami of 1933 on the Sanriku Coast, Japan, 55-64. (J). Minami-Muro County, Education Councel (ed.), 1925, Historical data in Minami-Muro County, Kii Province (II) (J). Minoda, T., 1970, Historical data in Yatsushiro City, Education Council of Yatsushiro City, p. 462. (J). Musha, K., 1941—1943, Historical data on Japanese great earthquakes. Revised ed., 1-3, Shinsai Yobo Hyogikai. (J). Musha, K., 1949, Historical data of Japanese great earthquakes, Mainichi Press, Publ., Tokyo. (J). Musha, K., 1950—1953, Catalogue of great earthquakes in and near Japan, Shinsai Yobo Kyokai. (J). Nagai, A., 1955, Historical Chronology in Nagashima Province, Kii. (J). Nagoya Regional Meteorological Observatory (ed.) 1970, Historical destructive disasters in Aichi Prefecture, Japan (Aichi-Ken Saigai-Shi), Aichi Prefecture. (J). Ogi, K. and K. Tsuboya, 1921, General historical description in Kitakanbara County, Niigata Prefecture. (J). Ogi, K., 1937 Historical description in Kitakanbara County, Oike-Bunko. (J). Omori, F., 1913, An account of the destructive earthquakes in Japan, Rep. Imp. Earthq. Invest. Comm., 68, B p. 1-180. (J). Omori, F., 1918, Historical sketches of the volcamic eruptions in Japan Part 1, Rep. Imp. Earthq. Invest. Comm., 86, pp. 1-236, Part II, 87, pp. 1-116. (J). Omori, F., 1919, A Catalogue of the destructive earthquakes in Japan (416—1918), Rep. Imp. Earthq. Invest. Comm., 88, B, pp. 1-71. (J). Omori, K. and S. Taki, 1923, Earthquake from Kamakura Erra to Nanpoku-cho, pp. 91-118. (J). Osaka Regional Meteorological Observatory, 1967, Earthquake and tsunami data. (J). Owase Meteorological Observatory (ed.), 1966, Historical hazards in the southern part of the Mie Prefecture. (J). Seismological Society of America, 1961—1984, Seismological Notes, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 50-74. Silgado, E. F., 1974, Historia de los grandes tsunamis producidos en la costa occidental de America del Sur. Social Section, Tokyo-Fu (ed.), 1959 and 1960, Natural disasters in Japan, part 1 and 2, Hara Shobo. (J). Soloviev, S. L. and Ch. N. Go, 1969, Catalog of tsunamis in the Pacific, Academy Nauka, USSR, Moscow, pp. 1-83. (R). Tanaka, K. and T. Takayama, 1924, Historical data of the great earthquake disasters of Japan (Nihon Dai- shinsai-shi), Kyobun-sha, pp. 414-548. (J). Tayama, M., 1899, Catalogue of historical data on Japanese earthquakes, Rep. Imp. Earthq. Invest. Comm., 26, pp. 3-112. (J). Tayama, M., 1904, Historical data on Japanese earthquakes, Rep. Imp. Earthq. Invest. Comm., 46, A, pp. 1 -606, B, pp. 1-595. (J). Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (ed.), 1984, A chronological table of disastrous earthquakes in Japan, Rikanenpyo, Maruzen Publ. Co., pp. 774-802 ; A chronological table of large earthquakes in the world, pp. 808-825. Tsuji, Y. (ed), 1979, Data of earthquake and tsunami in Tokai district, Vol. 1 and 2, Nat. Res. Center for Disaster Prevention. (J). Tsuji, Y., 1982, Study of the Totomi-Oki Earthquake of November 7, 1855, Zisin, 2nd Ser., 35, pp. 35-51. (J). Ui, H. (ed.), 1943, Historical disasters in Kii Province. (J). Unakami County, Education Council (ed.), 1917, Historical data in Unakami County, Chiba Prefecture p. 154. (J). Usami. T., 1979, Study of historical earthquakes in Japan, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 54, pp. 399 -439. Usami, T., 1977, Descriptive table of disastrous earthquakes in Japan, Univ. Tokyo Press. (J). Utsu, T., 1982, Catalog of large earthquakes in the region of Japan from 1885 through 1980, Bull, Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 57, No. 3, pp. 401-463. (J). Wada, B., 1925, Kanazawa-Sowa, Kaetsu-shi-wa-kai, p. 230. (J). Watanabe, K. (ed.), 1939, Historical data of Chiba Prefecture, Association for the Education Development of Chiba Prefecture. (J) Watanabe, K., 1961, Historical chronological table of Sanjyo City, Inv. Committee for historical data of Sanjyo City, p. 50. (J). Watanabe, H., 1968, Table of tsunamis occurring in and near Japan, Zisin, 2nd Ser., 21, pp. 293-313. (J). Watanabe, H., 1983, Revised table of tsunamis occurring in and near Japan, Zisin, 2nd Ser., 36, pp. 83-107. (J) (C) : in Chinese (J) : in Japanese (R) : in Russian